Bali is an island and the smallest province of Indonesia, and neighboring islands including multiple smaller , especially Nusa Penida . It is located in the westernmost end of the Lesser Sunda Islands , between Java to the west and Lombok to the east , and has a capital of Denpasar at the southern part of the island .
With a population of 3,890,757 at the 2010 census , and is currently 4.22 million , the island is home to most of Indonesia's Hindu minority . According to the 2010 Census , 84.5 % of Bali's population adhered to Balinese Hinduism , 12 % to Islam , and most of the rest to follow Christianity . Bali is also the largest tourist destination in the country and is renowned for its highly developed arts , including traditional and modern dance , sculpture , painting , leather , metal , and music . Tourist haven for decades , the province has seen a further surge in tourist numbers in recent years .
The island of Bali lies 3.2 km ( 2 mi ) east of Java and approximately 8 degrees south of the equator . Bali and Java are separated by the Bali Strait . East to west , the island is approximately 153 km ( 95 mi ) wide and spans approximately 112 km ( 69 mi ) north to south , is administratively covers 5,780 km2 , 5,577 km2 or without Nusa Penida District , population density is approximately 750 people/km2 .
Bali's central mountains include several peaks over 3,000 meters in height . The highest is Mount Agung ( 3,031 m ) , known as the " mother mountain " which is an active volcano . Mountains range from center to the eastern side , with Mount Agung the easternmost peak . Bali's volcanic nature has contributed to the exceptional fertility and high mountains which provide the high rainfall that supports the highly productive agriculture sector . South of the mountains is a broad , continuing down the area where most of Bali's large rice crop is growing . The north side of the mountains slopes more steeply to the sea and is the main coffee producing area of the island, along with rice , vegetables and cattle . The longest river , Ayung River , flows approximately 75 km .
The island is surrounded by coral reefs . Beaches in the south tend to have white sand while those in the north and west have black sand . Bali has no major waterways , although the Ho River is navigable by small sampan boats . Black sand beaches between Pasut and Klatingdukuh being developed for tourism , but apart from the seaside temple of Tanah Lot , they are not yet used for significant tourism .